Toothache is how most people experience dental pain, and it is caused by inflammation of the dental pulp. Inflammation of the pulp is typically caused by tooth decay, but can also be caused by trauma to the teeth, tooth fractures / cracks, damaged fillings and receding gums. The dental pulp is made up of soft tissue which includes sensitive nerves and blood vessels. Pain can come on suddenly and may vary from mild to severe throbbing.
Pain can also come from:
The dentist will examine your mouth and first look for visible problems including tooth decay. An x-ray may be performed to further check for problems, and determine the best course of action.
Typical solutions will cleaning any decay and performing a dental filling. Your dentist will be able prescribe any additional pain killers or antibiotics.